Augmented Reality in Marketing

It’s no secret that mobile is a key media channel for marketing. Consumers, not only use their phones to call or text, but also to watch videos, play games, check social media sites and download apps. But 2013 showed that this consumer behavior, has allowed for marketers to develop new ways of reaching consumers through advertising. According to the Business Insider, mobile advertising has increased from $1.4 billion in 2011 to $4.1 billion in 2012, and is projected to grow to $7.3 billion in 2013, with the bulk of spending being directed to iOS platforms. All mobile ads are not equal and there is diversity in the way mobile is used as a marketing communication channel. Mobile ads can be interactive, take over the user’s screen, fun, entertaining or highly targeted. With so many options on how to reach customers with so many mobile options – it would seem that the age of mobile advertising’s peak has been reached – or has it?

Despite its’ promises of high market value, augmented reality may seem like a foreign concept to introduce to a mobile marketing campaign. However, augmented reality and mobile marketing are very much related. Both are based on a consumer’s behavior and location, in the effort to make a consumer’s life easier by allowing for increasing ability to interact with the world around them. Augmented reality is also more user friendly than other interactive mobile marketing techniques such as QR codes, since augmented reality doesn’t require a reader of any kind – just a user to move their phone across an area. What are the results of an augmented reality campaign? A luxury watch company Tissot, launched an augmented reality campaign in which consumers could try on their watches virtually. When the campaign was tracked it was found that in-store sales increased by 85%.

Augmented reality marketing campaigns can go in many directions – the goal of an augmented reality marketing campaign is to keep the consumer’s “entertainment value” while providing useful tools. A few ways to do this are:

Help the consumer with geo-targeting: This method harkens back to the original apps using augmented reality by helping consumers to find points of interest via their location. The brand Stella Artios has a Le Bar augmented reality app that helps users find a bar with their beer by populating you phone with arrows on how to reach the nearest Stella vendors.

Show consumers what they need: Online shopping can be a challenge for consumers. Many times when purchasing online a consumer can’t get a good idea of what an object will look like on them until they receive it. Converse shoes uses an augmented reality iPhone app to help combat that issue. The app, a free download, allows a consumer to “try on” shoes before you buy them in-store or online. When a consumer has found a shoe that they like – they are then able to click on a “buy” button which directs them to a mobile optimized website for purchase. If the shoes are purchased through the augmented reality app, the consumer then receives free ground shipping.

Expand consumers’ perspectives: Other mobile marketing techniques that play with print tend to be static and non-dynamic, but with the use of augmented reality, there is the ability to enhance printed materials with new digital interactions. The most current example of this is the 2013, Ikea catalog, using augmented reality. When a consumer comes across a section of the catalog with a phone symbol on it, they then hold up their phone to the catalog and are able to see inside the furniture, optional layouts of the room and even the different colors an item comes in. The Ikea augmented reality app helps to simulate a similar experience that one would have in their stores – looking at a display room and then exploring further within it.

With almost every mobile device available on the market coming with internet, and app capabilities, marketers within the mobile advertising space now have the opportunity to create a user experience that helps to make a user’s interaction with the advertisement easier. Augmented reality when used to guide, enhance or give new perspective to a consumer is when it is the most successful. As the mobile market and usage grows so will augmented reality.

File Preservation of Digital Images

The troubles of file format preservation can be especially hard for such professions as photography. Photographers must deal with not only a lack of a hard copy of their work but also the issues of proprietary file formats with camera manufactures and image editing software. For example, the Nikon .NEF file used, as the company’s proprietary camera RAW file format will not even open in such systems as Adobe Bridge depending on the year the camera was produced and the version of .NEF file provided.

This could render collections of photographs useless. To help evade such issues the Digital Image Submission Criteria (DISC) standards have been provided by the IDEAlliance. The DISC standards recommend that of a JPEG high quality (level 8 ) and DNG a more universal RAW file format as delivery file formats (64).  These file formats are acceptable for file delivery but are they archival? This question can be answered by expanding upon our current knowledge of archival formats.

According to the Sustainability of Digital Formats Planning for Library of Congress Collections to be considered for archival status, certain aspects of the file must be measured. The first is disclosure; this means the amount of documentation that exists of over the created file (par 3). If it is an open source file format, there is more information than that of a proprietary allowing for the proper amount of information for a file to be properly preserved. Files are also measured on their adoption, if the format is widely used it allows for longer life in the digital world (par 7). Transparency “refers to the degree to which the digital representation is open to direct analysis with basic tools, including human readability using a text-only editor” (par 10).

Another factor is whether a file format allows for self-documentation through metadata, the idea being that if you can write within the file there may be clues on how to keep in an expectable condition for later use (par 16). It is also important to mention that external dependencies of the file type, if the file depends to much on specific hardware it may be tough to continue use if a digital system needs to be upgraded (par 20). Lastly, any patents and technical protection mechanisms must be considered to make sure that there is always access to the file and that multiple users are still able to obtain and work with it (par 22).

In regards to the DNG file format is considered to pass many of the requirements offered by the Library of Congress. “DNG is publicly documented, it is far more likely that raw images stored as DNG files will be readable by software in the distant future, making DNG a safer choice for archival” (Adobe Systems Incorporated 10). The public documentation of the metadata of the DNG file is also readily available allowing software to continue to read the files in the future (Adobe Systems Incorporated 10). As an extension of the TIFF 6.0 file format it is also compatible with the TIFF-EP standard and if necessary can “simultaneously comply” with the Digital Negative Standard as well (Adobe Systems Incorporated 10). This means that not only should file reader except a .DNG extension but also a .TIFF extension, opening up image storage into TIFF files as well (Adobe Systems Incorporated 11).

The color maintenance in the DNG file is rated to be excellent and allows for support of ICC profiles (Library of Congress par 4). This is very good when putting these files into a cross media workflow because it allows for the support and conversion of color profiles upon output. DNG also offers a way to create a standard way to encoder the raw sensor data from the camera and a few manufactures have begun to include DNG as an option for capture (OpenRAW Organization par 7). The format of the file is also intended for nondestructive image editing allowing for “for use with image manipulation tools that execute a variety of processes to transform the DNG into “pictures” suitable for different outputs” (Library of Congress par 4). Currently the compression of the image files is minimal when working with in the DNG format (Adobe Systems Incorporated 15). Transparency of the file is found only within the wrapper and any encoded data needs tools render (Library of Congress par 3).

Regarding the JPEG, file format is similar to the RAW in that it is fully disclosed and is documented by the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) (Library of Congress par 3). It has also been documented in the ISO standard in ISO/IEC 10918-1:1994 (JSTOR par 1). The transparency of the JPEG depends upon the type of software it does not have any external dependencies when it comes to reading or using the file (Library of Congress par 3). The file format has limited ability for technical metadata this would include such things as f-stop and aperture (Library Congress par 4). Color maintenance is limited and according to the Library of Congress does not support all ICC profiles.

The appeal of the JPEG file format that unlike DNG, the file format contains wide acceptance for digital capture and can be found in almost every camera or scanner as a capture option. However, even though the file format is available for capture it is not suggested due to the lossy compression when capturing data (Library Congress par 6). It should be noted that on some digital cameras there is an option for high quality jpeg. “It is using the same resolution as the RAW setting, assuring maximum image quality” (Smith par 5). Currently, Adobe Photoshop allows for JPEG and TIFF files to be opened and edited in the Camera Raw dialog (Adobe par 2).

Both the DNG and JPEG formats can be found to be file formats that are acceptable for long term preservation of files. However, it is important to note that each file has an appropriate place within the cross media workflow. The DISC standards make note that the DNG and JPEG are appropriate method of delivery and does not mention capture. However, if when capturing digital file formats it is important to use the highest quality possible so this maybe when a worker within the CMW uses a DNG file.

Due to the limited bit depth of the JPEG a DNG might also be best when editing images within the CMW. However, when a preview of an image is needed in the CMW a JPEG file with its compressed format would be ideal for fast loading time. Also if working with a website in a CMW a JPEG file format would be an excellent deliverable for such an output. It is important to note that were the final file will end up is the path it should follow within the CMW.

It is important to evaluate and migrate what is needed/wanted at least every five years when working with digital files (Gyor par 8). It is also important to pay attention to industry trends when working with files so that as formats fall out of favor the information they contain can be migrated over to a file format that allows for better preservation. By paying attention to what makes a file long lasting you are able to then extend the life of not only your files but the cross media workflows, content management systems and digital asset management systems that support it.

Taxonomy of Keywords & Their Importance

As the world becomes increasingly digitized, there is a new need for standardization of digital media files. The ways in which these files are stored are important, but even more so are the ways in which metadata is applied to allow one to search for a file once it has been placed within a content management system.

While looking at metadata standards, it is important to think about image capture standards as well. Images, especially those captured digitally, must meet certain criteria in order to be stored over a period of time, as well as allow for multiple uses. One example of image capture standards is the Digital Image Submission Criteria (DISC) standards provided by the IDEAlliance. DISC gives advice on how to store images for maximum reproduction in print and other media, while also lending itself to proper archival storage of digital images and files.

The DISC standards allow for digital media creators and publishers to deal with common problems found within a digital workflow. By following image standards, the digital file creator is able to determine the minimum quality level for digital images for printed output. Such standards also provide a way of creating a contract between the creator of the file and the acceptor, by creating guidelines specifying how images will be accepted or rejected. The DISC surveys also determine what format images should be submitted in. For example, in our Xinet project it was determined that images would be submitted as tiff files, using LAB color space and be at least 8 bit depth. A final aspect is how images should be labeled so that they fit within the digital workflow. This allows the image takers to create a standard to reach towards when outputting their work to the collective (Dougherty 2).

When images are rejected, it is understood that it is because the files did not meet the requirements laid out by the image standards. It is common for photographers and other digital file creators to not even receive payment for their work in the digital workflow world if their files do not follow the standards set forth by the receiving digital workflow. In a way, standards for image capture serves as a contract for both parties involved in the digital workflow.

Metadata is often utilized within the DISC standards. One aspect of metadata is the use of keywords to allow files to be searched. An important part of this includes the use of keywords. Keywords are part of an access structure, which “relates content types or publication pages to each other or to an external set of concepts that can be used to get to a particular content type” (Boiko par 40). Keywords fall within the indexing structure of metadata in the ranking of access structures making it the one of the most important fields. Keyword entry may come in different forms, for example in the IPTC Core, in which there is a spot for keywords. Similarly, within some museum systems there is a “Subject Matter—Description…A description of the work in terms of the generic elements of the image or images depicted in, on, or by it,” which may also hold keywords (Harpring par 10).

It is important when using keywords that taxonomy is applied to them. Since keywords may be free text, it is important to have a standard when using them (Dougherty 6). Taxonomy allows for  “an orderly classification that explicitly expresses the relationships, usually hierarchical (e.g., genus/species, whole/part, class/instance), between and among the things being classified” (Gill par 80). It is also important to keep in mind that many times keywords are known as open lists so you must “make sure that you trust users to add new items responsibly” (Boiko 10). When creating keywords, you must keep in mind the result – an extensible series of categories for organizing digital assets into meaningful sets (Bock 4).

“Using a taxonomy, we know how to relate one term in the information hierarchy to another” (Bock 5). If we look at this from the perspective of a cataloger of an art museum, it may take place in three steps. The first is where keywords entered may be generic, such as “nude” or “woman”, which are elements that would be easily observable to any person that is viewing the work. The next level would be identification, providing information that is generally more specific, such as “Birth of Venus.” Finally, the last set of keywords would deal with an even more specific set of terms that allow for interpretation, for example “Sandro Botticelli Classiest representation of Venus Birth” (Harpring par 20).

In respect to my experience with Xinet for a classproject, the keywords were chosen in a similar fashion to the hierarchy described in Introduction to Art Image Access, Issues, Tools, Standards, and Strategies. The first level of keywords for the images represents an overall knowledge of the subject matter. For example, the topic chosen for the images was baked goods, so the first keyword to be entered was “food” since this is a general term for anything editable (and the baked goods are food). Next, a keyword identifying the type of food was added – bakery. Since the baked goods came from a specific store, it was also added so that someone searching for the bakery name would be able to find it, along with “menu” to denote that this may be found year round in their store. In addition, “sweets” was added to show the type of baked good in the photo. Finally, the specific name of the baked good was added, “vanilla bean slice”.

It is important to use taxonomy within any type of database when dealing with digital media, as it allows users of all occupations and knowledge bases to easily search for images in a timely manner while preserving the original intent of the digital media.




Bock, G. E. (2005, October). Designing Metadata An Implementers Guide for Organizing and Using Digital Assets. Bock and Company, 1, 21.


Boiko, Bob. (2005). Content management bible, 2nd edition.

[Books24x7 version] Available from.


Dougherty, J., & Lam, K. w. (2007, May). DISC 2007 Specifications and Guidelines. Graphic Arts Monthly, 1, 9.


Gill, T., Gilliland, A. J., Whalen, M., & Woodley, M. S. (n.d.). Introduction to Metadata (Research at the Getty). The Getty. Retrieved January 1, 2011, from web.


Layne, S. S., Harpring, P., Hourihane, C., & Sundt, C. L. (n.d.). Introduction to Art Image Access (Research at the Getty). The Getty. Retrieved January 1, 2011, from web.

Isaiah Thomas Award in Publishing

A group of seven Rochester Institute of Technology alumni who have won a combined 11 Pulitzer Prizes are this year’s recipients of the RIT Isaiah Thomas Award in Publishing.

The Isaiah Thomas Award in Publishing, named for one of America’s great patriot printers, recognizes outstanding contributions made to the publishing industry. The honor is presented annually by RIT’s School of Print Media. This year’s recipients are all graduates from RIT’s College of Imaging Arts and Sciences.- Kelly Downs, RIT News

Two weeks ago the School of Print Media students had an opportunity to go to Washington, DC to see this award ceremony take place and meet the 7 Pulitzer Prize winning photographers. It was amazing! Each student was given a table with a photographer to sit with. I had the chance, along with my roommate Alex, to sit with Stan Grossfeld who won ” two Pulitzer Prizes in 1984 and 1985 while working for The Boston Globe. Grossfeld won in 1984 in the Spot News category for his series of photographs revealing the effects of war on the people of Lebanon. In 1985, he earned a Pulitzer in the Feature Photography category for a portfolio of images of the famine in Ethiopia and of illegal aliens on the Mexican border. Grossfeld was also among the finalists for Pulitzers in 1984, 1994 and 1996″ (Downs, par 3). It was really neat to hear his stories about what he witnessed in lifetime and meet his family. His daughter by far was our entertainment for the day! She was so sweet and is adopted from China, she serenaded us all over lunch and Alex even got to color with her!

It is always amazing to see people from RIT who really have made an impression with their work and have created something that will last within time.

Nothing is better than Gutenberg!




It wouldn't be a trip DC with out a DC cupcake! This has nothing to do with printing but tastes amazing!



Built Olympus Tough. Review of the Olympus Stylus Tough.

For a photographer one of the biggest challenges is picking a point and shoot camera. Believe me when I say you are spoiled by interchangeable lenses and a 5,000-dollar body. However, that being said I am a big believer in that it is the photographers eye and not the camera that makes a great picture. So when it came time to pick a new point and shoot, I think there couldn’t have been a harder decision for me! What did I settle on? The Olympus Stylus Tough…let me just say it lives up to its name!


Exposure Modes

Night Mode
Sand Mode

The one important thing when going from a DSLR to a point in shoot is that sudden feeling you have lack of control of your exposure and the type of lens you use. The Tough makes up for this by

giving the user multiple scene modes, lens simulation modes (think pin hole, fish eye), a fully automatic mode and finally a P mode, which allows for control of all the fine details of a shot.

So how did these handle? Well on the beach for my vacation, I used the Sand/Snow mode, which actually gave me a great tonal range – sand looks sandy and the clouds actually have detail. I was impressed with the way the camera handles high dynamic range. However, at a concert in Ithaca with a lower dynamic range it still handled like a typical point and shoot no matter the mode. Everything was slightly blurry – so you really need a tripod to capture anything with low light levels (yes I realize you would need a tripod on the DSLR too but what could have easily been a ISO or f-stop adjustment setting the camera stumbled). P mode was also good and where the night mode failed, the P mode did take up some slack.



So having in the past a Nikon Coolpix (never buy this camera if you want pictures that don’t look like an early vector rendering), one main selling factor to me was the noise levels on the camera.

Noise Levels

The Tough handled the noise levels like a champ, I did end up correcting a bit of noise in the night scenes but that is to be expected for a small camera sensor. In the high key scenes noise and chromatic aberration was virtually non existent, which was nice since most of the time I am using the camera for day pictures of random things.




Before buying this camera, I asked around about video quality from different people. Overall, everyone told me the Tough would be a good camera for random HD video needs. When I was at the concert in Ithaca a girl asked me to video tape her playing with the band but her camera died. Thankfully, I had the Tough to step in and after looking at the video on my computer was surprised at the dynamic range captured and sharpness of the video. It does better capturing dynamic range in low light settings with video over the picture; one caveat is that kills the battery life.


Color Balance

The color balance of the camera really depends on the scene mode you are in. Some have great color balance like the settings for Snow/Sand and other such as the night scene…not so much. Overall the camera leans towards a red/yellow shift the most but it is very slight.

Similar Shot - Auto WB
Shot Color Balanced in Photoshop


So how is the maneuverability of the camera? Not so great, I’m not sure what it is about Olympus but they love to make their buttons small and tight. I find myself hitting record instead of review or needing to bring the camera right on top of my face to see the buttons I am hitting. I really have trouble with remembering what to hit when and don’t feel like you go intuitively to where the buttons are placed on the camera. The user shouldn’t have to feel like the need to remember were to go they should just be able to go.

Other Cool Things

So, you may be wondering why is it called the Olympus Tough? Because it can go under water AND be dropped from a distance of 5 feet!!! I haven’t tried the underwater feature (I’m scared haha) but I did drop it on the beach, at the concert and in a street so yes it does live up to its name


Small buttons aside – this camera is awesome and lives up to its name. Wait…oops! I just dropped it into water! And would you look at that! It is just fine.